Zahida Quadri Editor

Welcome to the 5th Volume of Sindh Antiquities. This Volume marks a change to a new Editorial Team. We are delighted, to begin with the new Editorial Board which comprises experts from the field of Archaeology; Dr. Nilofer Shaikh; Chairperson at Centre for Documentation and Conservation of the Heritage of Sindh (Endowment Fund Trust), Pro. Dr. Valeria Piacentini; Full Professor of History and Institution of Muslim Countries in Catholic University of the Sacred !lean, Milano-Italy, she was also an Editor to the Encyclopedia Europea, and Dr. Aroura Dider; Head of the French Archaeological Mission in the Indus Basin (MAFBI).

We are also grateful to Dr. Ghulam Muhiuddin Veesar; the Chairman Department of Archaeology Shah Abdul Latif University-Sindh, Dr. Qasid Hussain Mallah; Director Archaeology and Museum- Shah Abdul Latif University. Mr. Madad Ali Sindhi renowned scholar of Sindh Studies, Dr. Humera Naz; Prof History Department, University of Karachi. Mr. Rand Eppich; Architect and Conservator of Heritage Sites. Mr. Kazi Ayaz Mahessar; Technical Consultant [Management of Heritage Sites- Sindh] & Madam Tasleem Abro, Asst Professor Shah Latif University Khairpur, to join our Board of Editors. It is the beginning of a new discipline and we aim to maintain the standards and scope of the journal. Sindh Antiquities-is a scholarly, blind peer-reviewed journal, dedicated to the study of History, Archaeology, Museums, and Heritage. However, it focuses primarily on the excavation, conservation and survey reports. conducted by the Directorate of Antiquities and Archaeology, Sindh. The present issue begins with the archaeological excavation report of Nuhato. This fieldwork at the lower Indus Basin, near Thar desert, was conducted in 2018 under the supervision of the Culture, Tourism & Antiquities Department, led by Dr. Qasid Hussain Mallah. The excavation report sheds light on the settlements of Indus valley which connected numerous communities in Sindh and Gujrat and have played a greater role in distributing various commodities throughout the Indus valley. Indeed, it is our intention to explicitly open up an interdisciplinary and international conversation about the heritage studies and nature of history. The Articles included in this volume address large issues that offer a new direction and are diverse in the topic. Maritime and Underwater Archaeology which is still a very young field and unfortunately, Pakistan is behind in this sector as compared to other countries. The article on this subject reflects our practices in this field. This issue has also opened up a debate on the controversy of the location of the graves of Noon and Jam Tamachi. Legislations of Archaeology and Heritage management needs theoretical and practical frameworks. Qasim Ali Qasm, the former Director of Department of Archaeology has shared a knowledge about the archeological and heritage practices handled by National and Provincial departments. A Lot of stories and background attached with an object displayed in a museum, Wessam Mohamad has discussed about their mode of documentation and argued to improve comprehensive documentation instead of paying more attention to the very materiality of the material. Architecture is always a representation of the society and while learning the history of architecture, one will always learn about history in general, especially politics and different religions. The Great Mosque of Esfahan, according to Quentin Arnoux, is a wise example of the transformation of an ancient Zoroastrian temple into a mosque with new architectural elements. The final paper by Nidhin G. Olikara discussed the spectacular collection of arms and armor once owned by Tipu Sultan, the erstwhile King of Mysore. Tipu's personal motif was the tiger, and he adorned both objects of art and instruments of war with images of the animal and with the tiger-stripe design.
In conclusion, for this issue, the team has selected the articles which are inclusive, thought-provoking and knowledge-building about the present and the past. We also see this conversation as of necessity for bringing different and diverse historical, regional and cultural tradition in to dialogue. Your comments and suggestions about this issue are welcome. If you are interested in being a reviewer, please write to us at our official email by submitting your resume, areas of interest and expertise. Thank you and we wish you a thought-provoking reading of the current volume of Sindh Antiquities.